Stem cells are the body’s raw materials — they are the cells that give rise to all other cells with specific tasks. Stem cells divide to produce additional cells called daughter cells under the proper circumstances in the body or in the lab.
These daughter cells either self-renew or differentiate into specialised cells with a more particular purpose, such as blood cells, brain cells, heart muscle cells, or bone cells (differentiation). No other cell in the body has the capacity to produce new cell types on its own.
What is the fascination with stem cells?
Researchers and physicians believe that stem cell research will enable them to:
- Gain a better understanding of how illnesses develop. Researchers and physicians may get a better understanding of how illnesses and disorders arise by observing stem cells grow into cells in bones, heart muscle, neurons, and other organs and tissue.
- Replace sick cells with healthy ones (regenerative medicine). Stem cells can be manipulated to become particular cells that may be utilised to restore and repair sick or damaged human tissues.
People with spinal cord injuries, type 1 diabetes, Parkinson’s disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Alzheimer’s disease, heart disease, stroke, burns, cancer, and osteoarthritis may benefit from stem cell treatments.
Stem cells may be able to be developed into new tissue for transplant and regenerative medicine purposes. Researchers continue to learn more about stem cells and how they may be used in transplant and regenerative medicine.
- Evaluate the safety and efficacy of novel medicines. Researchers may utilise certain kinds of stem cells to evaluate experimental medicines for safety and quality before employing them in humans. For cardiac toxicity testing, this kind of testing will most likely have a direct effect on drug development initially.
The efficacy of utilising human stem cells that have been turned into tissue-specific cells to evaluate novel medicines is one of the emerging fields of research. For reliable drug testing, the cells must be trained to acquire the characteristics of the cell types targeted by the medication. Techniques for programming cells to become particular cells are still being researched.
Nerve cells, for example, might be used to evaluate a novel medication for a nerve illness. Tests may reveal if the new medication had any impact on the cells and whether they were damaged as a result of it. Here are the diseases that can be treated by Mesenchymal stem cells.
- Cardiovascular diseases
- Neurological diseases
- Orthopedic diseases
- Diseases of the endocrine system: