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Intellectual disabilities can begin during childhood and it may cause delays in language or motor skills which is seen by age two. To treat this condition and reduce the symptoms, Global Stem Cell Care introduced an innovative therapy called stem cell treatment for intellectual disabilities. Thus, this treatment option can be shown as the hope of many patients and provide the best success rate result other than any therapies.

What Is Intellectual Disability and Its Types?

If you are suffering from limitations in intellectual functioning and adaptive behaviour, then you may have intellectual disability. There are many areas where an affected person may witness difficulties such as communication, learning, reasoning, problem-solving, and social skills. It will occur in childhood and stay with them for a lifetime. You can determine by an IQ test that you or an individual having intellectual disability. If your IQ is lower than 70, then it is the indication of having intellectual disabilities. There are several types of intellectual disabilities a person can have. Here are some of them:

  • Mild Intellectual Disability: Individuals with mild ID typically have IQ scores ranging from 50 to 70. They may face challenges in academic settings and require support in certain areas but can often learn practical skills and lead relatively independent lives with appropriate assistance.
  • Moderate Intellectual Disability: Those with moderate ID generally have IQ scores between 35 and 50. They often require more significant support in daily activities, such as self-care and communication. With structured assistance and training, they can attain some degree of independence and may be able to work in supervised settings.
  • Severe Intellectual Disability: Individuals with severe ID typically have IQ scores between 20 and 35. They often require constant support and supervision in all aspects of daily life, including personal care and safety. Their communication abilities may be limited, and they may have significant impairments in cognitive functioning.
  • Profound Intellectual Disability: Those with profound ID have IQ scores below 20. They have severe impairments in intellectual functioning and adaptive behavior, often requiring intensive, round-the-clock care. They may have limited or no ability to communicate verbally and may exhibit significant physical disabilities as well.
  • Multiple Disabilities: Some individuals may have intellectual disabilities along with other physical or sensory impairments, such as hearing or vision loss, cerebral palsy, or epilepsy. These multiple disabilities can further complicate their needs and require tailored interventions and support.

Types of Stem Cells Used to Treat Intellectual Disabilities

Stem Cell therapy for intellectual disabilities in India is becoming the hope for many individuals who are suffering from intellectual disability. Stem cells can be used to reduce the symptoms and offer treating routes for neuroregeneration and cognitive enhancement. There are various types of stem cells that have been investigated for their efficacy in addressing the underlying mechanisms of IDs:

  • Embryonic Stem Cells (ESCs): These pluripotent cells, derived from the inner cell mass of blastocysts, possess the ability to differentiate into any cell type in the body. ESCs offer a wide range of possibilities for treating IDs by replacing damaged neurons and supporting neural circuitry reconstruction.
  • Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells (iPSCs): iPSCs are reprogrammed from adult somatic cells, such as skin cells, reverting them to a pluripotent state. Their capacity to differentiate into neural progenitor cells (NPCs) makes them promising candidates for replacing dysfunctional neurons and restoring cognitive functions in individuals with IDs.
  • Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs): These multipotent stromal cells, often sourced from bone marrow or adipose tissue, exert neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory effects. MSCs can modulate the microenvironment of the brain, promoting neuronal survival, synaptic plasticity, and neurogenesis, which are crucial for ameliorating cognitive deficits in individuals with IDs.
  • Neural Stem Cells (NSCs): NSCs are self-renewing, multipotent cells found in the nervous system, particularly in the subventricular zone and the hippocampus. Their inherent capacity to differentiate into various neural lineages makes them valuable for replenishing damaged neuronal populations and enhancing cognitive functions affected by IDs.
  • Cord Blood Stem Cells (CBSCs): Umbilical cord blood is a rich source of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and other progenitor cells. CBSCs exhibit neuroprotective and immunomodulatory properties, contributing to neurogenesis and synaptic remodeling in the brain, which could mitigate the symptoms of IDs.

Benefits of Stem Cell Therapy in Treating Intellectual Disabilities

Using special cells from the body to help with learning problems is becoming really hopeful. It could make a big difference for people who have trouble learning, giving them lots of good things that could make their lives better. Here are five key advantages:

  1. Neuroregeneration

Stem cells possess the remarkable ability to differentiate into various cell types, including neurons. Stem cell therapy helps fix broken or not fully grown brain parts in people with learning problems. It makes their brains work better and helps them think clearer.

  1. Improved Cognitive Function

Through the replenishment of neuronal populations and the promotion of synaptic connectivity, intellectual disabilities stem cell treatment can enhance cognitive function in individuals with intellectual disabilities. This may manifest as improvements in learning, memory, problem-solving abilities, and overall cognitive processing.

  1. Long-term Benefits

Stem cell therapy offers the potential for long-lasting effects, as transplanted stem cells can integrate into existing neural networks and continue to proliferate and differentiate over time. This sustained neuroregenerative process ensures ongoing improvements in cognitive function and overall quality of life.

  1. Personalized Treatment Approach

Stem cell therapy can be customized to fit each person’s specific needs. Stem cells can come from different places like umbilical cord blood, bone marrow, or even fat from the person getting the treatment. This special way of doing things makes the treatment work really well for each person and lowers the chance of bad reactions or the body rejecting the treatment.

  1. Minimally Invasive Procedure

Stem cell therapy is often performed using minimally invasive techniques, such as intravenous infusion or intraocular injection, which carry minimal risk and require little to no recovery time. This makes the treatment accessible to a wide range of patients, including those with preexisting medical conditions or mobility limitations.

Brief Summary

Various stem cell types hold promise in treating intellectual disabilities and reduce the symptoms, including neural stem cells, induced pluripotent stem cells, and mesenchymal stem cells. While research is ongoing, these diverse stem cell therapy Delhi offer potential avenues for enhancing cognitive function and improving the quality of life for individuals with intellectual disabilities.

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